Category: Stainless Steel

Stainless Steel

Stainless Steels – Specifications, Grades And Properties

The name stainless steel covers a variety toko stainless steel di medan of corrosion resistant steels that contain a minimum of 11% Chromium. Changing the Chromium content and adding other elements like Nickel, Molybdenum, Titanium and Niobium changes the mechanical and physical properties of the steel.

Stainless Steel Grades Explained

This results in hundreds of different grades of stainless steel that are covered by a range of national and international standards.Grade Families of Stainless Steel

Each one of the grades is grouped into one of five stainless steel families. These families are named after their metallurgical microstructure. The five groups are austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic and precipitation hardening.Ferritic Stainless Steels

The lack of other alloying elements means ferritic stainless steel are known as plain Chromium steels. They have a Chromium content between 12 and 18%. The carbon content in ferritic stainless steel is very low.

Ferritic stainless steel:Have moderate corrosion resistanceAre not susceptible to stress corrosionAre magneticCannot be hardened by heat treatmentAre always used in the annealed conditionPoor weldability for most grades

Common ferritic grades include the proprietary grade 430 stainless steel and the cheapest stainless steel, grade 409 stainless steel. 409 stainless steel is the material of choice for automotive exhausts due to its combination of low price, corrosion resistance and excellent formability.Austenitic Stainless Steels

Adding nickel to stainless steel in sufficient amounts, changes the microstructure to “austenite”.

70% of commercially produced stainless steel are austenitic. The most common grade of austenitic stainless steel is 304 (1.4301). Globally, 304 accounts for more than 50% of stainless steel consumed. A common name for 304 stainless is 18/8. This name refers to the average composition, 18% chromium and 8% nickel. It is sometimes used generically for austenitic stainless steel other than 304, even if the actual composition is vastly different.

Some of the features of austenitic stainless steel include:Excellent corrosion resistanceNon-magnetic when annealedRapidly work harden with cold workNot hardenable by heat treatmentDuctile and readily formableExcellent weldabilityHygienic with excellent cleanabilityGood performance at high temperaturesExcellent performance at low temperatures

Other than 304 stainless steel, other common austenitic grades include the popular marine grade, 316 stainless steel and the machining bar grade, 303 stainless steel.Martensitic Stainless Steels

The first stainless steel to be developed for commercial applications were martensitic stainless steel. These steels were used for cutlery. When compared with other stainless steel, the martensitic stainless class have a relatively high carbon content (0.1 – 1.dua%). Like ferritic stainless steel, they are plain chromium steels containing between 12 and 18% chromium.

Features of martensitic stainless steel include:Moderate corrosion resistanceHeat treatableMagneticInability to be cold formedPoor weldability

Martensitic grades include 420 stainless steel, which is used in engineering applications like shafts and 440C stainless steel – the hardest and most stainless steel medan abrasion resistant of all the stainless steel.Duplex Stainless Steels

Duplex stainless steel get their name from the fact that they contain both a ferritic and austenitic microstructure. They have a relatively high chromium content of between 18 and 28%. Nickel content is moderate at 4.5 to 8%.

At this level, the nickel content is too low to generate a fully austenitic structure. This results in a duplex microstructure containing both ferritic and austenitic phases.

Duplex stainless steel also tend to contain dua.lima-4% molybdenum.

The prime advantage of duplex stainless is the combination of properties derived from both austenitic and ferritic stainless steel.

Duplex stainless steel have:Excellent corrosion resistanceIncreased resistance to chloride attackGood resistance to tertekan corrosion crackingTensile and yield strength higher than austenitic or ferritic gradesGood weldabilityGood formability

With excellent corrosion resistance the common duplex grade, 2205 stainless steel, is used in heat exchangers, chemical tanks and refineries.Precipitation Hardening Grades

Precipitation hardening stainless steel can be martensitic, semi-austenitic or austenitic. They offer the combined properties of corrosion resistance from austenitic grades with the heat treatability of martensitic grades.

Precipitation hardening grades, like 17-4 PH (also known as 630 stainless steel), are supplied as solution treated bars. They can then be machined before hardening.

The hardening process is a single, low temperature, ageing step.

Properties of precipitation hardening grades include:Good to moderate corrosion resistanceGood weldabilityVery high strengthMagneticSpecifications of Stainless Steel

Grade compositions, mechanical properties and production specifications are governed by a range of international and national standards for stainless steel. While the old AISI three digit stainless steel numbering system (e.g. 304 and 316) is still commonly used for the classification of stainless steel grades, new classification systems have been developed.

These systems include a 1-letter + 5-digit UNS number, like S30400, as defined by SAE and ASTM. European countries are adopting unified Euronorm standards. These countries are either replacing or adapting their own country specific standards to mirror the Euronorm standards. Other designations being replaced include old BS and EN numbers like 304S31 and 58E.

Some grades are not covered by standard numbers and could be proprietary grades or be named using standards for specialist products like welding wire.

Stainless steel standards are explained in lebih jelasnya in the British Stainless Steel Association “Guide to Stainless Steel Specifications”, also known as the BSSA “Blue Guide”.

The table 1 lists a range of stainless steel grades, their old BS designation, new UNS number and new EN designation.

Table 1. Stainless steel grades and their international equivalents

ASTM does not recognise the designations in brackets. Many other grades and specifications are available.

Material supplied by Aalco has been manufactured to comply with a number of standards depending upon the product. Standards also cover the finish of the material.Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel

Required mechanical properties are normally given in purchase specifications for stainless steel. Minimum mechanical properties are also given by the various standards relevant to the material and product form. Meeting these standard mechanical properties indicates that the material has been properly manufactured to an appropriate quality system. Engineers can then confidently utilise the material in structures that meet safe working loads and pressures.

Mechanical properties specified for flat rolled products are normally tensile strength, yield stress (or proof tertekan), elongation and Brinell or Rockwell hardness. Property requirements for bar, tube, pipe and fittings typically state tensile strength and yield stress.Yield Strength of Stainless Steel

Unlike mild steels, the yield strength of annealed austenitic stainless steel is a very low proportion of the tensile strength. Mild steel yield strength is typically 65-70% of the tensile strength. This figure tends to only be 40-45% in the austenitic stainless family.

Cold working rapidly and greatly increases the yield strength. Some forms of stainless steel, like spring tempered wire, can be cold worked to lift the yield strength to 80-95% of the tensile strength.Ductility of Stainless Steel